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"It would not have made any difference."

Response at 1945 McVay court-martial by Mochitsura Hashimoto, commander of the submarine which sank the Indianapolis, when asked "Would it have made any difference to you whether the ship was zigzagging or not?

Resource for Educators

Click here for an online course that mirrors the ussindianapolis.org site. It's free of charge and students receive a certificate of completion when finished.

http://www.learningzen.com/

References (Books)

Kurzman, Dan. Fatal Voyage: The Sinking of the USS Indianapolis. New-York: Atheneum, 1990. OCLC 20824775 (reprint with foreward by Harlan Twible, survivor, 2001, 397 pages). 

Newcomb, Richard F. Abandon ship! Death of the U.S.S. Indianapolis. New York: Holt, 1958. OCLC 173257, 2177577 (reprint with introduction by Peter Maas, 2000, 326 pages).

Nelson, Pete Left for Dead (with preface by Hunter Scott) New York: Delacorte Pres, 2002, 191 pages. 

Lech, Raymond B. All the Drowned Sailors. New York: Stein and Day, 1982. OCLC 8668901.

Stanton, Doug In Harm's Way New York: Henry Holt, 2001, 333 pages (in paperback with new afterword about Captain McVay's exoneration, 2002) Click here for more information.

Other References 

U.S. Senate Armed Services Committee hearing report, The Sinking of the USS Indianapolis and the Subsequent Court-martial of Rear Admiral Charles B. McVay III, 1st session, 106th Congress, September 14, 1999, 150 pages (can be ordered from the Government Printing Office for payment of $7.50).

Alvarez, Lizette, "A Boy's School Project Aims to Revise History: New Focus on Case of 1945 War Disaster." The New York Times, May 1, 1999.

Boyd, Carl. "Attacking the Indianapolis: A Re-examination." Warship International 13, no.1 (1976): 15-25. 

Brown, Chip. "Terror of Shark and Sea, 35 Years After." Washington Post ( 6 Aug. 1980): E1-E3. 

Burlingame, Burl. "Historian: McVay Didn't Have Spy Data." Honolulu Star Bulletin ( 4 Nov. 1993). 

Ethridge, Kenneth E. "The Agony of the Indianapolis." American Heritage 33, no.5 (Aug.-Sep. 1982): 81-96. 

Haynes, Lewis L. and George W. Campbell. "We Prayed While 883 Died." Saturday Evening Post ( 6 Aug. 1955): 28-29,76,78,80. 

Helm, Thomas "Ordeal by Sea" by New American Library A division of Penguin-Putnam International, New York, NY published June 2001 ISBN 0-451-20447-6 With forward and afterward by Captain William J. Toti, USN, 251 pages.

Helm, Thomas. Ordeal By Sea: The Tragedy of the U.S.S. Indianapolis. New York: Dodd, Mead, 1963. OCLC 1349965. [Includes final sailing list with survivors indicated.] 

Maas, Peter, "It's Time to Right a Wrong," Parade Magazine, August 20, 2000

Mueller, Michael "Lost at Sea." American History Illustrated 20, no.4 (Jun. 1985): 28-35. 

"Navy Reports on Court Martial and Gives Account of Indianapolis' Loss." Army and Navy Journal 83, no.27 (2 Mar. 1946): 815, 828, 831.   

"Four Nights of Terror." American Legion 111, no.2 (Aug. 1981): 16-17,40-41. 

Norwitz, Steven. "Remembering the Hunger and Thirst, the Sharks and the Screams." Washington Post ( 5 Aug. 1975): B1-B2.

Toti, Cmdr. William, "The Sinking of the Indy & Responsibility of Command." U.S. Naval Institute publication Proceedings, October 1999

Sudyk, Bob, "Redemption for Sailor Joe." Hartford (Conn.) Courant Sunday magazine, June 21, 1998

Suduk, Bob, "The Search for the Truth About the Indianapolis." Cleveland (Ohio) Plain Dealer Sunday magazine, December 6, 1998

The USS Indianapolis Monument in Indianapolis Indiana - North and South Face.